Conditions of southern Ukraine pigs productivity under different methods of breeding in modern
The article presents the results of studies concerning pigs’ productivity for purebred breeding and innovative approaches to crossbreeding schemes in the South of Ukraine. In general, sows of all experimental groups had high productivity both in purebred breeding and because of combining different forms with each other however there was no heterosis effect on the sows’ multiplicity in crossbreeding of Large White breed and the complexity of combining the sows of hybrid origin. Young hybrid animals of experimental groups reached a live weight of 100 kg sooner for 2.6-16.4 days or 1.4-8.9 % and feed costs were lower 0.12-0.34 feed units or 3.4-9.7 % per 1 kg gain during the fattening period.
The obtained results show that the proposed production of final hybrids with a conditional proportion of blood landrace Ч large white in terms of live weight is the most successful and adapted to the technology of moderate intensity. The use of purebred and local animals related to the so-called "White breeds" - Large White and Landrace, is characterized by increased intensity of formation and indices of growth stress. The obtained results additionally confirm the complexity of adaptation of non-ferrous breeds (Duroc and especially Pietrain breeds) to the technological conditions of domestic pork farms. Young pigs were obtained in combinations where the parental form was the breed: Large White, Landrace or Duroc had the best exterior features that characterize the development of animals in length. In combinations where the parent form was the Pietrain breed, the latitudinal measurements and the meat index were improved against the background of a decrease in body length.
A morphological study of carcasses of young pig stock of different origin has proved that implementation of up-to-date crossbreeding schemes with the use of meat-type breeds as paternal lines results in improved carcass dressing percentage and optimised lean-to-fat ratio. As evident out of the physical and chemical analysis of pork obtained from pigs of different breed-of-origin, all investigated parameters are within the current physiological limits. Most parameters have shown no significant difference, though tended to exhibit some peculiarities associated with the impact of genotype on the manifestation of one or another physical or chemical characteristic. The use of Pietrain breed as a sire line results in decreased intramuscular fat content, and hence the energy value of pork, with the back fat having the highest melting point which is indicative of its enhanced storability, though slightly impaired cooking properties as compared to similar products obtained from the offspring of the Large White and Landrace parents. With respect to its pH level and water-holding capacity, the pork from Pietrain-sired offspring is quite similar to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat being slightly less tender and paler in colour and exhibiting greater weight loss during thermal processing. Also, a comprehensive sensory evaluation of boiled pork and pork broth obtained from a group of the Pietrain-sired young stock has got the lowest score, which is consistent with most of the physical and chemical properties of pork from pigs of this genotype; therefore, it is 75% purebred Landrace that should be favoured as a terminal sire line in crossbreeding programmes in order to obtain pork and bacon of improved quality in intensive commercial swine production systems. It is recommended to preliminary combine Pietrain and Duroc lines to produce terminal sires (Pietrain Ч Duroc) which will be further mated with two-breed-cross dams (LW Ч L).
Analiz biometrychnykh danykh u rozvedenni ta selektsii tvaryn. (2019). [Analysis of biometric data in breeding and selection of animals: a textbook] / [S. S. Kramarenko, S. I. Luhovyi, A. V. Lykhach]. Mykolaiv: MNAU. [in Ukrainian]
Biometrychnyi analiz minlyvosti oznak silskohospodarskykh tvaryn i ptytsi. (2010). [Biometric analysis of variability of traits of farm animals and birds: a textbook] / V. P. Kovalenko, V. I. Khalak, T. I. Nezhlukchenko. Kherson: Oldi-plius. [in Ukrainian]
Garmatiuk K. (2019). Innovatsiini pidkhody pry poiednanni svynei riznoho pokhodzhennia v umovakh pivdnia Ukrainy [Innovative approaches for migration of pigs different origin under the condition of south Ukraine] Ahrarnyi Visnyk Prychornomoria [Agrarian Bulletin of the Black Sea Littoral]: Odessa State Agrarian University, 95. 39-46. [in Ukrainian]
Getia A. A. (2009). Orhanizatsiia selektsiinoho protsesu v suchasnomu svynarstvi [Organization of selection process in modern pig breeding]. Poltava: Poltavskyi literator. [in Ukrainian]
Gryshyna L. P., Voloshchuk V. M., Aknievskyi Yu. P. (2015). Metodolohiia stvorennia spetsializovanoho typu svynei [Methodology of creating a specialized type of pigs]. Poltava: TOV «Firma «Tek-hservis», 2015. [in Ukrainian]
Rybalko V. P. Metodychni etapy stvorennia ta shliakhy vykorystannia svynei chervonoi bilopoi asoi porody. (2019). [Methodical stages of the creation of that way of victorious pigs of the red white-belted breed.]. Svynarstvo [Pig breeding]: mizhvid. nauk zb. Poltava, 73. 91-96. [in Ukrainian]
Svynarstvo (2014). [Pig breeding] / V. M. Volo-shchuka (Ed). Kyiv : Ahrar. Nauka. [in Ukrainian]
Selektsiia silskohospodarskykh tvaryn. (2008) [Breeding of farm animals] / Yu. F. Melnyk, V. P. Kovalenko, A. M. Uhnivenko ta in.; za red. Yu. F. Melnyka. Kyiv: Intas, 2008. [in Ukrainian]
Susol, R. L. (2015). Naukovo-praktychni metody vyko-rystannya svyney porody p’yetren u systemi «henotyp - seredovyshche» [Scientific and Practical Methods of Using Pigs of the Breed of Pitren in the System «Genotype ? Environment»]. Odesa: Buka-iev Vadym Viktorovych. [in Ukrainian]
Susol R. L., Garmatiuk K. V., Khalak V. I. (2018). Optymizatsiia systemy rozvedennia i hodivli svynei miasnoho napriamku produktyvnosti v umovakh pivdnia Ukrainy [Optimization of meat-type pig breeding and nutrition system under conditions in the South of Ukraine]. Zernovy kultury [Grain Crops]. 2 (2). 353-359. [in Ukrainian]
Rybalko, V. P., Berezovs’ky, M. D., Bohdanov, H.A. (2005). Suchasni metodyky doslidzhen’ u svynarstvi [Modern Methods of Research in Pig Breeding]. Poltava: IC UAAS. [in Ukrainian]
Khalak V. I., Chernyavsky S. E., Chegorka P. Т. Pokaznyky vidtvoriuvalnykh yakostei svynomatok riznoi pleminnoi tsinnosti, otsinenykh za tradytsiinymy ta innovatsiinymy metodamy [Indicators of reproductive qualities of sows of different breeding value, evaluated by traditional and innovative methods]. Zernovy kultury [Grain Crops], 2021, T.5 (1). 180-187. [in Ukrainian]
Tsereniuk, O. M., Shablia V. P., Akimov O. V. (2016). Vykorystannia indeksu SIVIaS v selektsii svynei porody uels [Use of the CIVIAS index in the selection of Welsh pigs]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten IT NAAN [Scientific and Technical Bulletin of IT NAAS]. 116. 174-183. [in Ukrainian]
Tsereniuk O. M. Perspektyvy ta vyklyky u vitchy-znianomu svynarstvi. (2020). [Prospects and challenges in domestic pig breeding]. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu silskoho hospodarstva im. Petra Vasylenka [Bulletin of Kharkiv National Technical University of Agriculture of Petra Vasilenko]. 209. 90. [in Ukrainian].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.